Local members who are in the management committees are usually kept in the periphery by assigning them insignificant responsibilities like committee members, secretaries, wardens and attendants. However, despite these attempts transfer of rights to local communities has been limited, partial and mainly designed to eradicate conflicts between the state and rural communities.
Since past CBNRM projects have failed due to non — participatory and centralisation of decision making, community empowerment and decentralisation should be considered as central to the success of TBNRM in the study area. TBNRM programs often have limited economic opportunities.
Devolution, Decentralization and Empowerment As for NRM within a country, TBNRM can be constrained if devolution of control over land and resource use is inadequate for those at lower levels to play their roles effectively.
More recently, factors such as globalisation and increasing efforts at achieving regional economic integration have contributed to growing enthusiasm in transboundary natural resource management TBNRM by NGOs, donors and the private sector as an additional natural resources management movement.
As with any typology, the categories are imperfect and there are initiatives in southern Africa which are not easily identified with one category; still, it is useful at a general level to understand the differences among initiatives Table 1. Objectives of TBNRM Resource management in border areas deserves special attention because borders are areas where inequities surface and conflicts erupt Ingram et al Some rely on tourism to encourage economic development and sustainability of the venture to date this is more the case in Southern Africa than in the other regions.Major rivers form the boundaries between several SADC countries, and numerous valuable wildlife populations migrate across borders. For example, a common cause of the collapse of fish populations historically has been optimism about the size and productivity of populations Hilborn and Walters These institutions will see the importance of redistributing rights and benefits to the local communities and involvement of beneficiaries in TBNRM initiatives. The history of natural resources in both Zimbabwe and South Africa is characterised by expropriation from local communities during the colonial period Hammer and Wolf, For example, the Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species CITES controls opportunities for trade in animal products among nations and therefore limits opportunities for wildlife use by communities. The management structure which exists does not fulfil the thrust which aims at distributing of rights and benefits to the local communities. Going Transboundary. Sustaining the productivity of resources in transboundary areas remains an essential task given the growing scarcity and increasing demand for these resources. The net benefits of transboundary collaboration also should be greater than the net benefits of working separately at country level. The cultural heritage of local communities may become subordinated in the TBNRM process; communities value cultural as well as biological heritage, but other TBNRM stakeholders value the biological or economic side more and may force this at the expense of cultural factors. This was also seen as a way of not impinging on the sovereignty of member states since national development efforts take priority over regional cooperation.
The communities will also find this information handy as it will highlight their entry point in TBNRM initiatives. TBNRM in the study area have underscored more on raising income at the expense of food production. Closely linked to leadership and benefits sharing in TBNRM initiatives are the issues of accountability between collaborating stakeholders.
Opportunities for TBNRM development are being explored and recognised rapidly in many practitioners and decision makers.The history of land in most southern African countries is one of expropriation from local people during the colonial period. Major rivers form the boundaries between several SADC countries, and numerous valuable wildlife populations migrate across borders. Benefits have to be shared, and perceived inequities may seriously constrain collaboration to manage shared resources. Email: y. By describing these factors, this section of the paper helps to shed light on the emergence of TBNRM as a major development thrust in the region. Within this broad framework there are both in-country and international aspects that have a direct or indirect ramifications on the success of transboundary initiatives. Capacity building, flexibility, experimentation, adaptive management and learning and sharing of experiences are important ingredients in TBNRM development in Southern Africa. These stakeholders include the South African and Zimbabwean governments, quasi-government institutions such as local authorities and the national parks. This is evidenced by lack of effective policy and legal frameworks for conservation of natural resources in these areas. The wide variety of users and multiple functions of natural resources in transboundary areas attest to the important of these resources in Southern Africa.